Second Language Aquisition

INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE ORGANIZATION
MIDDLE YEARS PROGRAMME
Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development

MYP 94
Middle Years Programme
Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development
January 2004
Acknowledgments
This Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development guide for schools has been
written by practising teachers from authorized MYP schools in many regions and the MYP curriculum
team at IBCA. Thanks are due to all who contributed to its completion.

MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 1
Introduction to the
Middle Years Programme
The Middle Years Programme (MYP) of the International Baccalaureate
Organization (IBO) is a course of study designed to meet the educational
requirements of students aged between 11 and 16 years. The curriculum may be
taught as an entity in itself, but it is flexible enough to allow the demands of national,
regional or local legislation to be met.
Early and present curriculum developers of the Middle Years Programme have shared
a common concern to prepare young people for the changing demands of life in the
twenty-first century.
MYP students are at an age when they are making the transition from early puberty to
mid-adolescence: this is a crucial period of personal, social, physical and intellectual
development, of uncertainty and of questioning. The MYP has been devised to guide
students in their search for a sense of belonging in the world around them. It also aims
to help students to develop the knowledge, attitudes and skills they need to participate
actively and responsibly in a changing and increasingly interrelated world. This means
teaching them to become independent learners who can recognize relationships
between school subjects and the world outside, and learn to combine relevant
knowledge, experience and critical thinking to solve authentic problems.
The eight subject groups provide a broad, traditional foundation of knowledge, while
the pedagogical devices used to transmit this knowledge aim to increase the students’
awareness of the relationships between subjects. Students are encouraged to question
and evaluate information critically, to seek out and explore the links between subjects,
and to develop an awareness of their own place in the world.
The MYP aims to develop in students:
• the disposition and capacity to be lifelong learners
• the capacity to adapt to a rapidly changing reality
• problem-solving and practical skills and intellectual rigour
• the capacity and self-confidence to act individually and collaboratively
• an awareness of global issues and the willingness to act responsibly
• the ability to engage in effective communication across frontiers
• respect for others and an appreciation of similarities and differences.
Fundamental Concepts
Adolescents are confronted with a vast and often bewildering array of choices. The
MYP is designed to provide students with the values and opportunities that will enable
them to develop sound judgment. Learning how to learn and how to evaluate
information critically is as important as the content of the disciplines themselves.
Introduction to the Middle Years Programme
2 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
From its beginning, the MYP has been guided by three fundamental concepts that
underpin its development, both internationally and in individual schools:
• holistic learning
• intercultural awareness
• communication.
These concepts form the basis for the MYP’s curriculum framework, which is shared by
different types of schools in all parts of the world. The fundamental concepts of the
MYP should be the guiding principles in designing the curriculum and school activities.
Holistic Learning
Holistic learning emphasizes the links between the disciplines, providing a global
view of situations and issues. Students should become more aware of the relevance of
their learning, and come to see knowledge as an interrelated whole. Students should
see the cohesion and the complementarities of various fields of study, but this must
not be done to the detriment of learning within each of the disciplines, which retain
their own objectives and methodology.
Intercultural Awareness
Intercultural awareness is concerned with developing students’ attitudes, knowledge
and skills as they learn about their own and others’ social and national cultures. By
encouraging students to consider multiple perspectives, intercultural awareness not
only fosters tolerance and respect, but may also lead to empathy.
Communication
Communication is fundamental to learning, as it supports inquiry and understanding,
and allows student reflection and expression. The MYP places particular emphasis on
language acquisition and allows students to explore multiple forms of expression.
Areas of Interaction
Students are required to experience and explore each of the five areas of interaction in
every year of the programme:
• approaches to learning (ATL), in which students take increasing responsibility
for their learning
• community and service, through which students become aware of their roles and
their responsibilities as members of communities
• homo faber, environment, health and social education, broad areas of student
inquiry where personal as well as societal and global issues are investigated and
debated.
The areas of interaction give the MYP its distinctive core. These areas are common to
all disciplines and are incorporated into the MYP so that students will become
increasingly aware of the connections between subject content and the real world,
rather than considering subjects as isolated areas unrelated to each other and to the
world. The MYP presents knowledge as an integrated whole, emphasizing the
acquisition of skills and self-awareness, and the development of personal values. As a
result, students are expected to develop an awareness of broader and more complex
global issues.
Introduction to the Middle Years Programme
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 3
The areas of interaction are explored through the subjects, thereby fulfilling their
integrative function. Some aspects, however, may also be approached as separate
modules and interdisciplinary projects throughout the MYP. Student participation in
the areas of interaction culminates in the personal project.
Further information on the personal project is available in the Personal Project
guide.
Curricular Framework
The MYP offers a curricular framework that allows school-specific requirements to be
met while maintaining the mission and philosophy of the IBO. To ensure this, the IBO
prescribes the aims and objectives of all subject groups and the personal project.
Aims and Objectives
The objectives of each subject group are skills-based and broad enough to allow a
variety of teaching and learning approaches. The precise choice and organization of
content is left to schools in order to preserve flexibility. In some subjects the content is
not specified while in others a framework of concepts or topics is prescribed for all
students to address over the five years. Such prescription is kept to a minimum and
schools are asked to expand their scope of topics and depth of treatment according to
their individual needs and preferences.
The aims and objectives of the subject groups address all aspects of learning including
knowledge, understanding, skills and attitudes.
• Knowledge: the facts that the student should be able to recall to ensure
competence in the subject.
• Understanding: how the student will be able to interpret, apply or predict
aspects of the subject.
• Skills: how the student will be able to apply what has been learned
in new situations.
• Attitudes: how the student is changed by the learning experience.
Objectives provided by the IBO for subjects in the MYP are defined as final
objectives. While teachers will find it necessary to develop their own interim
objectives and assessment practices in years 1–5, the final objectives form the basis
for the assessment criteria that are intended for use in the final assessment of students’
work at the end of year 5. Whether or not schools request IBO-validated grades for
their students, they are all required to organize learning and assessment in a way that
is consistent with the prescribed objectives.
Schemes of Work
It is each school’s responsibility to produce schemes of work that enable students to
reach the objectives of each subject. Sample schemes of work or sample activities for
all subject groups have been written by practicing teachers as a suggested means of
achieving this. Teachers may choose to adopt the samples offered, amend them to suit
their own requirements, or write an alternative scheme of work.
Introduction to the Middle Years Programme
4 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Whichever schemes of work schools adopt, the final MYP objectives are prescribed.
The areas of interaction should remain an integral part of the subject teaching and
learning process, and must be at the core of the personal project.
Assessment
Teachers must use the assessment criteria published in the subject guides to assess
students’ work internally. All schools must use these criteria for final assessment.
Schools that request IBO-validated grades and MYP certification for students
must submit internally assessed work in the subject groups to IBCA for external
moderation. Schools that have students undertaking courses through secondlanguage
and mother-tongue programmes are not exempt from these
requirements.
Programme Evaluation
Programme evaluation is mandatory for all schools. It is a means of ensuring quality
of programmes in participating schools, while assisting schools in their self-evaluation
and curriculum development procedures. Evaluation occurs at regular, predetermined
intervals. Schools’ implementation of second-language acquisition and mother-tongue
development programmes will be a part of programme evaluation.
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 5
Programme Model
One of the aims of the Middle Years Programme is to ensure that students are
competent in at least two languages by the end of the fifth year. Students whose
mother tongue is not the school’s language of instruction also fit into this programme
model. For examples of where these students fit in respect to languages A and B,
please refer to “Establishing a language profile for certification of students”.
6 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Second-language Acquisition and
Mother-tongue Development in the MYP
“…the honesty of the IBO stems from the fact that we require all students to
relate first to their own national identity—their own language, history and
cultural heritage, no matter where in the world this may be.”
Roger Peel, former director general of the IBO
“The role of language, one’s mother tongue, and the study of other languages in
this context have a special place in any programme’s design. It is through
language that we access our own and others’ culture. The role of language
acquisition and development from early childhood in order to foster bi- and
multi-lingualism is fundamental to any sequence of programmes.”
Helen Drennen, former director of academic affairs at IBCA
Learning the language of instruction impacts on a student’s development, as this is
where the student begins to construct learning in two languages. This guide is
designed to assist schools and students engaging in the language learning process by
giving clear requirements and recommendations for second-language acquisition and
mother-tongue development in MYP schools. It aims to define second-language
learners, to assess their needs, and to provide guidelines for effective school
programmes that answer these needs. Practical examples of strategies and elements of
courses that attempt to meet these needs are also included.
Many students in MYP schools come from a language background that differs from
that of the school, the school community, or both. Schools that offer the MYP need to
provide for these students. This guide reflects the educational beliefs and values of the
IBO and the principles of the MYP. The guidance and recommendations in this
document are based on current academic research related to both students acquiring
the language of instruction in schools, and to the importance of mother-tongue
maintenance and development.
The research relating to mother-tongue maintenance and development (Cummins and
Danesi, in Baker and Prys Jones, 1988) is particularly significant. This research
indicates that students following a mother-tongue maintenance and development
programme receive the following benefits.
• They avoid language loss and the resultant negative effects, for example, subtractive
bilingualism (where the development of a second language is detrimental to the
first language—see glossary for a more-detailed definition).
• They perform at least as well (often better) in mainstream subjects (science,
humanities, etc) as monolingual students.
• They perform at least as well (often better) as second-language students who don’t
maintain their mother tongue and are schooled wholly in the second language.
• They retain a positive attitude toward their mother tongue and cultural background
when the school shows acceptance of the mother-tongue language, accounting for
increased self-esteem and its resultant benefits.
Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development in the MYP
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 7
Fundamental Concepts
Second-language acquisition and mother-tongue development programmes directly
support the fundamental concepts of the MYP: holistic learning, intercultural
awareness, and communication.
Holistic Learning
Second-language acquisition and mother-tongue development programmes help establish
links between subject groups and the areas of interaction, and should also create strong
links between the languages and cultures studied and maintained, both in an academic
and linguistic sense. They enhance students’ cognitive abilities to make these links, and
can aid understanding when concepts are studied in both (or more) languages.
Intercultural Awareness
Second-language acquisition and mother-tongue development programmes have the
capacity to foster intercultural awareness to a profound level. They can make students
aware of the importance of their own culture and language, and allow access to the
culture of the language of instruction through the language itself. Additionally, the
opportunity to access a wider variety of language and further sociocultural
development is made available to other students in the school not involved directly in
these programmes. It is the role of an MYP school to incorporate the cultural diversity
in the school. This can be done by acknowledging the wide range of student
experiences via both the areas of interaction and the subject groups.
Communication
Second-language acquisition and mother-tongue development programmes support and
enhance students’ abilities in the four macro skills of both languages (listening,
speaking, reading, and writing) and further develop their communication skills. This is
critical for developing students’ abilities in constructing learning.
Language Histories and Requirements in MYP Schools
Given the variety of language environments and student populations in MYP schools,
it is typical to find students who do not speak the language of instruction as their
mother tongue, and to find a diversity of language learning profiles within the
classroom. Some of the variables within students’ profiles are:
• mother tongue(s)
• level of literacy in the mother tongue
• dual-language family backgrounds
• parental expectations
• changes of mother tongue
• changes of language of instruction
• dislocation in their previous learning of other languages
• access to host country languages
• language of the carers in the home
• possibility of learning disabilities.
In this document we describe students who do not have the language of instruction as
their mother tongue as second-language students.
These second-language students have two main requirements: acquisition of the
language of instruction, and maintenance and development of their mother tongue.
Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development in the MYP
8 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Acquisition of the Language of Instruction
To acquire the language of instruction students need access to a school programme
that will enable them to achieve full competence in the language of instruction.
Students require this language not only to access the mainstream academic curriculum,
but also to participate fully in the cultural and social life of the school.
There are two key needs for students in the process of acquiring the language of
instruction. These are:
• a programme of specialist language teaching that acknowledges the ongoing
language needs of students and also allows for the maximum amount of integration
into the academic curriculum and the classroom as possible
• teachers of specific subject groups that are aware of the needs of secondlanguage
students. These teachers should be trained in the strategies that give
second-language students access to the content of the subject groups, and should
allow content to be used as a vehicle for language instruction.
Maintenance and Development of the Mother Tongue
Students in MYP schools should be able to achieve all the benefits of additive
bilingualism—acquiring a second language with no detriment to development in their
first language. (See glossary for a more-detailed explanation of this term.) This can
only be achieved if students maintain and develop their mother tongue in speaking,
listening, reading and writing.
The following aspects relating to students’ language learning needs may also be
significant.
• Maintenance of the language of instruction of the home school system for those
likely to return to their home countries
• Learning of languages other than the language of instruction and mother tongue
• Maintenance of previously learned/studied languages
• Maintenance of previous host country languages
• Access to the host country language
• Counselling parents in helping the students develop and maintain the mother
tongue
It is each school’s responsibility to produce schemes of work that enable students
to reach the objectives of each subject. This guide will assist schools in meeting this
responsibility.
In addition, this guide includes examples that expand on references made within the
guide, as well as a list of resources that might assist schools in setting up these
programmes.
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 9
Second Language
Definition
“Second language” is standard linguistic terminology used to describe a language
learned subsequently to a first language, and implies that a student also has access to
the language for communicative purposes outside the context of the language
classroom (for example, in other subject classrooms, outside the school or learning
environment, or in the community). (Spolsky, 1999)
“Second language” is the term used in this document to describe the language learned by
students, for whom the language of instruction is not their mother tongue, in order to
follow the curriculum of the school. For example, if English is the language of instruction
in the school, students who are not able to work comfortably in English will need an
extensive course of instruction in English as a second language. “Second” does not refer
to a mathematical progression; it is not necessarily the students’ second-best language.
Needs of the Student
Second-language learners need a well-planned and well-delivered curriculum that
enables them to access, take part, and achieve success in the academic, social, and
cultural life of the school.
Students will enter the school with varying levels of knowledge of the second
language, from beginning to advanced level. Research (Thomas and Collier, 1997)
shows that second-language students require approximately 4 to 7 years in a good
second-language and mother-tongue instruction programme in order to perform at the
same level as native speakers in the school’s language of instruction.
Second-language learners need a second-language programme that:
• is integrated into the academic curriculum and planning in order to cater for
ongoing language needs and ensure full participation
• enables them to achieve MYP objectives
• acts as a resource for the teachers and learners of the second language
• provides a caring, flexible and supportive environment
• includes all teachers in all curriculum areas to ensure that second-language learners
learn the specialized language specific to individual subjects
• aims to ensure that lack of competence in the language of instruction interrupts or
hampers their cognitive and academic progress as little as possible.
Aims of a Second-language Programme
The aims of a second-language programme are to enable the students to access the
curriculum of the school, while at the same time developing broad communication
and interaction skills, and approaches to learning skills.
Second Language
10 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
An effective second-language programme would enable students to:
• use the language confidently and effectively as a means of communication within
the social, cultural and academic life of the school, and in the wider community
• develop the specific communicative skills required by each of the MYP subjects in
the curriculum, including the development of the language of critical thinking and
problem solving, and the use of creative language as a vehicle for self-expression
• develop a critical approach to study, including strategies for dealing with unfamiliar
texts and language
• develop an understanding of the nature of language and the process of language learning
• develop an understanding of the cultural patterns that affect the thinking, feeling
and acting of societies in which the language is spoken (intercultural awareness).
Elements of a Second-language Programme
Effective second-language programmes should include:
• an admissions policy that ensures the school can offer appropriate provision to
meet a student’s language needs before enrolling the student
• acknowledgment of the varying levels of proficiency, and provision for at least the
levels of beginner, intermediate, and advanced
• entry and exit criteria to a second-language programme using a range of assessment
approaches, including authentic assessment (see glossary for definition), and
provision of support for students during transition/adjustment phases
• participation of second-language teachers in planning the school-wide programme, and
opportunities for collaboration between second-language and mainstream teachers
• integration of the MYP objectives into the second-language programme, including
conceptual support relating to the MYP (fundamental concepts, areas of interaction)
• a programme of communicative language learning, including teaching of core
language skills (such as grammatical structures and vocabulary) and generic
language skills (such as reading for information, report writing, oral presentations)
• reporting processes that acknowledge not only language achievement, but also
show how that achievement has transferred to other subject groups.
In-service Training
It is essential that all subject teachers and administrators in MYP schools are trained in
cultural and linguistic awareness, and in the instructional techniques for working with
second-language learners. Schools will need to investigate training courses that
adequately cater for the needs of their individual school.
Such in-service training will make participants aware of language-acquisition issues,
the typical development of language learning, and the challenges experienced by
second-language students in mainstream classrooms. It will provide teachers with
practical strategies for giving second-language students access to the content of the
subject groups and for teaching them the language skills needed in those groups. It
will also ensure that administrators, through first-hand experience, are able to give
better provision in determining school policies, class-size and employing suitably
qualified and experienced staff.
This type of training is essential to ensure the full participation of second-language
students in the MYP.
Second Language
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 11
Resources for Second-language Teaching and Learning
• Mainstream content area materials, including grammar course books, literary texts,
reference books, supplementary publishers’ materials, and resources related to the
areas of interaction, with parallel mother-tongue texts where possible
• Teacher-made practice materials related to students’ language needs and interests
• Visual and graphic materials (maps, diagrams, etc), with modified language if
needed
• Hands-on teaching aids
• Access to technology, including CD-roms, internet, DVD and video, and
audiocassettes
Cultural Issues
Second-language students may need help in adjusting to the school culture and to
differing expectations including:
• teaching and learning styles (eg taking part in collaborative learning, writing an
investigative report)
• teacher/student interaction
• classroom behaviour
• patterns of social life.
Teachers also need to appreciate the cultures and differing expectations of the secondlanguage
learners in their classroom.
Points to Consider
• The school should draw up a language background profile for individual students
to determine where the student falls on the continuum of language learning, and to
ensure the student is placed in an appropriate programme where their language
needs are catered for effectively. (Please refer to the language profile examples.)
Student profiles need to be reassessed periodically to ensure the student is placed
correctly.
• A language log should be kept in which the development of a student’s repertoire
of languages is recorded. This could include indications of progress in both mother
tongue(s) and second language(s), languages students have been exposed to, and
how they continue to use and develop them.
• Consideration should be given to the type of certification the student is aiming for.
• Many students in MYP schools come from a language background that differs from
that of the school, the school community, or both. Schools that offer the MYP
should expect this, and provide for these students. As the learning of at least two
languages is compulsory within the MYP, students should not be disadvantaged
through the requirement of extra fees for language services that assist them in
accessing the curriculum.
12 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Mother Tongue
Definition
In MYP schools, it is often difficult to establish which language is a student’s mother
tongue as students may:
• have parents from different language backgrounds
• have lived in different countries and learned other languages
• have better academic proficiency in a language that is not their mother tongue.
The terms that describe the language students use at home and/or outside the
classroom/school environment include “first language”, “home language”, “preferred
language”, “mother tongue”, “native language”, “heritage language”, and sometimes
“best language”. For the purposes of the MYP, the term “mother tongue” is used.
Note: The complexities of some students’ language profiles do not always allow for
clarity in this area. Many second-language students are using more than two languages
outside the classroom arena. Schools need to engage with parents and students to decide
in which of the student’s languages literacy should be maintained and developed.
Importance of Mother-tongue Programmes
Maintaining and developing language and literacy skills in the mother tongue:
• facilitates the learning of the second language
• in parallel with reaching competence in the second language, leads to additive
bilingualism
• ensures continuous cognitive development
• has the potential to increase intercultural awareness and understanding, both for the
student and their peers
• enables students to remain in touch with, and maintain esteem for the language,
literature and culture of their home country
• makes it possible for students to re-adjust to life in their home community and
education system should they return to their home country.
Mother-tongue programmes should aim to develop students’ language and literacy
skills in their mother tongue to their full potential in order for them to achieve the
above benefits.
Mother Tongue
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 13
Promoting Development and Maintenance of the Mother
Tongue
Where possible, the school will:
• provide for mother-tongue classes within the MYP. Mother-tongue courses should
be developed according to the aims and objectives of the MYP for students for
whom the language of instruction is not their mother tongue. Close reference
should be made, at all times, to the MYP Language A guide.
• facilitate mother-tongue classes within the school premises
• teach subjects through the mother tongue
• show recognition and celebration of the various mother-tongue languages within
the school
• acknowledge that mother-tongue languages are a beneficial resource for both
students and teachers
• make information on mother-tongue programmes available to parents and teachers.
Resources for Mother-tongue Programmes
• Fiction and non-fiction texts at various language levels, also relating to mainstream
content and school-wide events if possible
• Grammar course books
• Mainstream content texts, where possible
• Hands-on teaching aids
• Teacher-made practice materials related to students’ language needs and interests
• Resources related to the areas of interaction
• Visual and graphic materials (maps, diagrams, etc)
Schools need to provide authentic texts and materials. Libraries/media centres should
be encouraged to build up resources of texts in all the mother tongues of the student
population. These texts should not only be literary but should also include all
curriculum content matter (history, science, art, etc), as well as grammar course books,
reference books and supplementary publishers’ materials.
Schools should make every effort to provide information technology resources that
enable all mother-tongue students and teachers to access material in their own languages.
These resources would include CD-Roms, Internet, DVD, video and audiocassettes.
Training for Mother-tongue Teachers
Schools should ensure that mother-tongue teachers are welcomed into and made part
of the school community.
Schools will:
• provide information and advice to mother-tongue teachers
• facilitate training of mother-tongue teachers in the MYP and its principles
• encourage liaison between MYP teachers and mother-tongue teachers
• ensure that mother-tongue teachers are aware of the main themes of the curriculum
and important events within the school.
Mother Tongue
14 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Points to Consider
• The school should draw up a language background profile for individual students
to determine where the student falls on the continuum of language learning, and so
that the student is placed in an appropriate programme and their language needs are
catered for effectively. (Please refer to language profile examples.) Student profiles
need to be reassessed periodically to ensure the student is placed correctly.
• A language log should be kept in which the development of a student’s repertoire
of languages is recorded. This could include indications of progress in both mother
tongue(s) and second language(s), languages students have been exposed to, and
how they continue to use and develop them.
• Consideration should be given to the type of certification the student is aiming for.
• Many students in MYP schools come from a language background that differs from
that of the school, the school community, or both. Schools that offer the MYP
should expect this, and provide for these students. As the learning of at least two
languages is compulsory in the MYP, as much as possible, students should not be
disadvantaged through the requirement of extra fees for language services that
assist them in accessing the curriculum, and maintaining uninterrupted academic
and cognitive development.
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 15
Glossary
Additive bilingualism Additive bilingualism occurs when students acquire a second
language with neither detriment to development in their first
language, nor to esteem for their own culture, whether
academic, cognitive, linguistic or social. This can lead to
students being highly proficient in both languages, with all the
benefits that accompany bilingualism, for example, a higher rate
of academic success compared to monolingual students. (from
Wallace Lambert, 1975, in Thomas and Collier, 1997)
Authentic assessment Authentic assessment is the use of learning activities to assess
student competency in designated skills. It assesses what a
learner understands and can do.
Bilingual A bilingual person can demonstrate competence in two languages.
Differentiation The adaptation of teaching strategies and content to allow
second-language students at various levels of competence in the
language of instruction to participate in the mainstream
academic programme.
Host country language The host country language is the language spoken in the
community in which the school is located.
Language of instruction The language of instruction is the language in which the
curriculum is delivered in the school.
Mainstream For the purpose of this document, a mainstream classroom is
one where students are placed into the full school programme
without specialist language support.
Mother tongue For the purposes of the MYP, “mother tongue” (also known as first
language, home language, preferred language, native language,
heritage language, and best language), describes the language that
students use at home, and/or outside the classroom environment.
The complexities of some students’ language profiles do not
always allow for clarity in this area. Many second-language
students are using more than two languages outside the
classroom arena. Schools need to engage with parents and
students to decide in which of the student’s mother tongues
literacy should be maintained and developed.
Scaffolding of learning Scaffolding of learning is the supply of practical supports and
strategies, such as patterns, grids and outlines, to help secondlanguage
students participate in the learning of the mainstream
classroom. (Please refer to the “Practical suggestions” section for
examples.)
Glossary
16 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Second language “Second language” is standard linguistic terminology used to
describe a language learnt subsequently to a first language, and
implies that a student also has access to the language for
communicative purposes outside the context of the languageclassroom
(for example, in other subject classrooms, outside the
school or learning environment, in the community). (Spolsky, 1999)
For the purposes of the MYP, “second language” is also the
term used for the language of instruction when this language is
not a student’s mother tongue.
Subtractive bilingualism Subtractive bilingualism occurs when the development of the
second language is detrimental to the development and
maintenance of the first language. Through this, students may
also come to have lower esteem for the culture of their first
language. This can happen in many situations, for example,
when the first language is regarded as unnecessary for learning,
has a lower status in the community, or is simply not supported.
Students experiencing subtractive bilingualism tend to achieve
much less success than their peers, as their academic, cognitive,
and social progress is restricted during the period of learning the
second language. This in turn can also have a long-term effect
on students’ motivation and self-esteem. (from Wallace
Lambert, 1975, in Thomas and Collier, 1997)
Practical Suggestions
The following pages are intended to help teachers construct or review second-language and/or mothertongue
programmes in MYP schools.
This practical suggestions section contains examples and suggestions only. They do not constitute
IBO policy statements and are not intended for implementation in every MYP school. They provide a
selection of models that schools may want to adopt, adapt, refer to, or from which ideas may be
extracted.
18 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Frequently Asked Questions
Where do my second-language learners fit? Are they language A or language B?
Where you place your students will largely depend on the language profile you create for
students entering your school. There are examples of these profiles in this guide. The most
important factors in determining placement will be students’ proficiency in the language of
instruction, whether the school is willing to allow the student to take the language of
instruction as language B, access to a mother-tongue programme, and opportunities for
study of other languages. Please note that a student does not have to take the school’s
language of instruction as language A if this language is their second language.
Reminder—Students must do one of the following options if they are applying for MYP
certification:
1. one language A and one language B
2. two languages A
3. one language B, and a language programme approved by the IBO as a suitable
replacement for a language A course. (Please refer to the MYP Coordinator’s
Handbook for further details.)
When does a second-language student stop being a second-language student?
Just as a first-language student can always improve in grammar, vocabulary, and
syntax, so too will a second-language student always have room for improvement. In a
school setting, when second-language students can cope sufficiently in a mainstream
classroom it is appropriate to place them there. However, such students will continue
to require assistance in their language and vocabulary development, and this should
continue to be provided by schools.
Can a second-language student ever reach top levels in language A? How can we expect
them to be at the same level as a student who is a native speaker?
A second-language student can certainly achieve a very high level of proficiency in
the second language. Statistics show that second-language learners can be at a similar
cognitive, linguistic, and academic level as their peers after 4–7 years of study in an
environment that supports additive bilingualism. That is, an environment that
encourages the development of, and academic and cognitive learning in, the student’s
mother tongue while also learning the second language.
How can we support students during transition and adjustment phases into mainstream
classrooms?
This can be done by monitoring students’ academic, social and emotional progress,
and providing support when necessary. Methods may include second-language
teachers attending classes with the students, providing a “refuge” for students
(somewhere they can air their concerns or difficulties), or providing them with
strategies for coping in the classroom.
In addition, all teachers in the school should be trained in catering for second-language
students in their classrooms.
Frequently Asked Questions
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 19
How can we provide ongoing language support for students in mainstream classrooms?
This will involve mainstream teachers employing teaching strategies that support secondlanguage
students, and monitoring these students for any language-related difficulties.
Mainstream teachers should liaise with the second-language department about teaching
necessary language skills, and to enable any language-support structures to be put in place.
Second-language support teachers should also monitor the progress of students who
no longer attend their lessons in conjunction with the mainstream subject teachers, and
organize for language-support mechanisms if necessary.
How do we incorporate early learners of the language of instruction into major
interdisciplinary projects?
You may need to:
• liaise with the language of instruction support teacher so that projects can be
included in the language support programme
• provide content and conceptual material essential to the project in the students’
mother tongue
• modify assessment tasks (less written work/more diagrams required, extra time to
complete language-intensive tasks, etc)
• provide support materials (see “Scaffolding of learning”).
How do I differentiate within my classroom when working with second-language learners?
You will find that you need to differentiate for all students in your classroom, whether
they are second-language students or not, as some students are naturally faster or
slower learners than others. By undertaking school-sponsored training in catering for
second-language students in your classroom you will be better equipped to
differentiate for these students.
How can we ensure appropriate training of teachers?
By making full use of professional development opportunities. Often it is very
effective to provide training for all teachers at once through recognized programmes to
emphasize the importance of the needs of second-language students and to encourage
professional debate among the staff. Another method is to have some of the
mainstream teachers trained in teaching second-language students, and have them
deliver the training to the rest of the staff.
How do we integrate the second-language and mother-tongue programmes into the MYP?
For second-language students, these programmes are an integral part of the MYP
curriculum—essentially the language A and B components. Second-language
programmes are often timetabled against language B, with mother-tongue provision
timetabled against language A. However, all schools have different timetabling
constraints. The discussion forums in the online curriculum centre are an excellent
place to ask other schools how they have overcome this issue.
When do we integrate the second-language and mother-tongue programmes into the
MYP?
Provisions for second-language and mother-tongue programmes need to be integrated
into your curriculum as soon as possible, across all year levels. The most effective
means of ensuring that this happens is during the planning phase. This in turn requires
that teachers of the language of instruction and mother-tongue teachers are included in
the overall planning as far as possible. Checking of second-language and mothertongue
programmes will be a part of school evaluation visits.
Establishing a Language Profile for Incoming Students
When students enter MYP schools, it is important that an assessment is made of their competence in the language of instruction. For students for whom the
language of instruction is not their mother tongue, an assessment of their level of competence in their mother tongue is also necessary. The aim for students for whom the
language of instruction is not their mother tongue is additive bilingualism.
This diagram provides just one model of how student placement could be organized within the school.
20 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Student
MT = LoI
MT ≠ LoI
Language A = LoI
+
Language B class as
appropriate
Is the student at language A level in the LoI?
(Could the student cope in a mainstream classroom?)
YES
Assessment of second-language learning needs
(Beginner/ intermediate/ advanced)
Second-language programme
(According to language category)
Exit from specialist second-language
teaching programme
Assessment of language level
School advises
parents on MT
development and
maintenance
Student has access
to school or outside
MT courses
Goal: student develops a language A
and at least a language B
LoI = language of instruction of the school
MT = mother tongue
NO
Student monitored by mainstream teachers to ensure
continuing LoI development
Student monitored by mainstream teachers to
ensure continuing LoI development
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 21
Establishing a Language Profile for
Certification of Students
The IBO will issue an MYP certificate to each student who satisfies the following
conditions.
The student must:
• be registered, and have gained at least a grade 2 in at least one subject per subject
group of the MYP
• have gained at least a grade 3 for the personal project
• have participated in the programme for at least the final two years
• have met the expectations of community and service to the satisfaction of the school
• have gained a grade total of at least 36 from the eight subject groups and the
personal project combined, out of a possible maximum of 63. If more than one
subject has been entered in a given subject group, only the single best grade will
count towards certification, although all subject results will appear on the MYP
record of achievement.
There are two exceptions to the first point:
1. A student may be registered in two languages A instead of one language A and
one language B (both languages A counting towards the final grade total).
2. A student may be registered in one language B, and a language programme
approved by the IBO as a suitable replacement for a language A course. (Please
refer to the MYP Coordinator’s Handbook for further details.)
Establishing a Language Profile for Certification of Students
22 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
The following table is an aid for schools in placing students into appropriate language
programmes to provide the opportunities for successful completion of the MYP. The
table is not exhaustive, but shows some common options for language placement.
Students could be placed in any of the following options.
Option
Language A
(or language A
equivalent, approved
programme)
Language B
Additional
language
1. Mother tongue Language of instruction
2. Language of instruction Mother tongue
3. Mother tongue Language of instruction
Other
(credited at A/B/
B advanced level)
4. Language of instruction Mother tongue
Other
(credited at A/B/
B advanced level)
5. Mother tongue
Language of instruction
6. Mother tongue
Language of instruction
Other
(credited at A/B/
B advanced level)
7. Language of instruction Other
Mother tongue
(credited at A/B/
B advanced level)
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 23
Examples of Mother-tongue Courses
The following examples of mother-tongue courses come from a school in the IB
Africa/Europe/Middle East region.
The teachers involved have outlined the work they cover for school administrative purposes,
and also to provide other mother-tongue teachers with guidance.
Example 1—Japanese
Grade 6
In the Japanese education system grade 6 is still in the primary school. Usually I teach
a normal Japanese class in primary school, and use the primary textbook. There are
three short stories (war, science fiction, and stories at school), two science non-fiction
stories (space, dinosaurs), three modern poems, and one drama piece. Students read
aloud at first, because they must learn pronunciation. Then I let them explain their
understanding of the text. Afterwards I explain anything that has not been understood.
Then I give them Kanji exercises. They write one or two short stories and two
emotional expression texts in a year.
Sometimes, one to two times a year, I show them Japanese videos, such as Japanese
landscapes, or films for children.
Grade 7
Grade 7 in Japan is the last grade in primary school. I teach them for the whole year
with the primary textbook. The content of the textbook is nearly the same as for grade
6 (three short stories—war, family stories, biography; two science non-fiction—sea
and continent, environmental system; three modern poems and haiku; one drama
piece). At first the students read them aloud, so that they can pronounce each word
correctly. Then I write out the key points of each and the students copy these into their
notebooks. This is an exercise in writing Japanese. Students who are returning to
Japan do their own exercise book intensively with me, to ensure that they aren’t
behind mother-tongue students in Japan. If it is necessary, I teach Japanese history and
geography.
When we have time, I show them Japanese landscape videos or films.
Grade 8
In the Japanese educational system grade 8 is the first grade in junior high school. I
use the textbook from grade 8 (one world literature, three Japanese stories, two essays
for environmental problems, one science non-fiction (insects), two essays, three
Japanese modern poems, two Japanese classical works of literature). I prepare key
points and analysis in each subject. The students copy this in their notebooks and then
they give their analysis and opinions. They choose whichever subject they are
interested in, and write an assignment. There are two to three assignments a year. If
necessary, I teach Japanese history and geography and show videos.
Examples of Mother-tongue Courses
24 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Grade 9
Grade 9 is the second grade in junior high school in Japan. I use the textbook for grade
9. The contents are nearly the same as for grade 8 (one world literature, four Japanese
stories, two environmental problems, three essays, three poems (modern and
classical), three Japanese classical works of literature). We discuss each subject and
complete assignments. In April I start to teach the third grade in Junior High School in
Japan. I finish it by October in grade 10. It means the basic Japanese study is finished.
Then the students can start IB A1 study. This means that grade 9 is very busy, but up
to now all of my grade 9 students have been able to cope.
Grade 10
Grade 10 is the most important year for the course. I spend the whole grade 10 year as
a pre-DP study. According to the individual class, I prepare a different programme for
each student; each student has different abilities and interests. After discussion with
each student, I like to select the books and materials that they want to learn. Each of
them has different books and materials. At the end of the year, usually the end of May
or beginning of June, I decide on their DP book list and students start the DP course in
the summer holidays.
Pre-A1 Students
Many Japanese students do not read Japanese literature. They read only comics,
magazines and simple stories, which cannot be used for the Diploma Programme.
During the grade 10 year, I give them DP-level literature, which is not on the DP book
list, but which provides the Japanese cultural background. This is normally other
works by authors on the DP book list, or those with similar content to the DP
prescribed literature. After studying each book, the students write essays or
commentaries (two to three pages each).
Parallel to studying the Japanese literature, they learn world literature. Usually I select
any books that they can compare with the Japanese DP books. At the moment I am
teaching as follows:
Japanese folklore—Greek and Roman mythology
Romeo and Juliet—Shiosai by Mishima Yukio (Youth)
House of the Spirits by Isabella Allende—The River Ki by Ariyoshi Sawako (family
relationships)
Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen and Makioka Sisters by Junichiro Tanizaki (love
and marriage)
Pre-A2 Students
Grade 10 is also very important for the A2 Japanese students who usually do not have
enough Japanese cultural background. During grade 10, they read short stories, Japanese
newspapers, and magazines. At first I discuss with each student their interests and then I
select the materials. Normally the materials cover several topics, so that the students can
gain a wide vision of Japanese society, cu1ture or traditions. They read the materials and
books together and discuss them until the students can really understand. Afterwards the
students write essays or commentaries on each topic.
Examples of Mother-tongue Courses
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 25
Course for pre-A1 students (five times in a six-day cycle)
1. September–October
Study of the last part of the junior high school in Japan (grade 9 level)—finish
the basic Japanese compulsory education: reading and understanding of
Japanese textbooks, including Japanese history and geography
2. November–December
• Three to four books: Japanese romance, novels or poems (depends on the
students)
Materials are Al level but are not on the DP book list.
• Three to four essays for each work
3. January–March
Personal project (discuss the topics, research the materials, discuss the structure
and conclusion, etc)
4. April–May
Study world literature and Japanese literature (three to four books in tota1)
(A1 level but outside the DP book list )
5. June
Decide on the DP book list and start DP study
Course for pre-A2 students (five times in a six-day cycle)
1. September–October
Reading three to four short stories or poems (depends on students) of typical
good Japanese literature. Then writing a commentary or assignment (two to four
pages).
2. November–December
Reading newspapers and magazines (depends on the student). Two to three
topics such as: youth crimes, school problems, family relationships, or Nohtheater,
Japanese black and white painting, etc
3. January–April
Personal project (discuss topics, research the materials, discuss construction and
conclusion). A2 students need more time for this work than Al students,
because of their lesser knowledge of Japanese
4. May–June
Reading two to three short stories or newspaper articles (depends on students).
Students then write an assignment
5. June
Decide on the A2 Japanese DP course. Start the DP course
Examples of Mother-tongue Courses
26 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Personal Project
I encourage the students to do their personal project in their mother tongue at every
level (pre-A1 and pre-A2, and pre-B level if they want). It is a good opportunity for
them to gain a better understanding of Japan and Japanese.
It is also the first opportunity for students to collect materials, research the topic, and
build the structure of a document in Japanese. This can naturally extend to the
Diploma Programme extended essay. This work can include literature and also the
students’ favourite topics.
Examples of topics
1. Japanese aquarelle—traditional Japanese beauty and its meaning
2. Pictorializing one Japanese short story, and analysing the author
3. Pictorializing five Japanese short stories to compare different worlds, using
themes such as dreams, suffering, death and betrayal
4. Japanese folklore—analysis of the Japanese faith and life in the country and in
the mountains.
5. Ill-treatment of children—comparative research in South-East Asia, Phillipines,
Africa and Japan
6. Japanese cakes—analysis of traditional Japanese beauty, relationship between
the four seasons and Japanese cakes
Examples of Mother-tongue Courses
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 27
Example 2—Polish
Grade 6—Educational Requirements
The students will be expected to:
1. Read aloud with appropriate expression; read in silence with good
understanding of the text; recite two chosen poems, participate in a class
performance.
2. Demonstrate the ability to depict fragments concerning the theme; describe the
presented world in context of time, place, its characters and their functions, its
narrator and his judgment of that world; analyse and describe characters; edit a
plan.
3. Read four to six works selected from:
I Jurgielewiczowa—Ten obcy
D Terakowska—Wlada Lewanu
Z Nienacki—PanSamochodzik i templariusze
B Prus—Katarynka (structure of the novelette)
M Musierowicz—Jezycjada part 1
W Makowiecki—Diossos
M Jedrychowska, ZA Klakowna—To lubie
K Makuszynski—Awantura o Basie
M Krüger—Godzina pasowej rozy
E Niziurski—Niewiarygodne przygody Marka Piegusa
M Wojtyszko—Bambuko czyli skandal w krainie gier
I Jurgielewiczowa—inna
Sat-Okh—Bialy Mustang
W Makowiecki—Przygody Meliklesa greka
4. Write four class-works, two grammar tests and complete any corrections
required.
5. Demonstrate knowledge of phonetics: division of words into syllables, letters;
division of syllables; inflection: conjugation through cases, separating subject
from ending, contiguity of themes; syntax: singular sentences, unfolded, not
unfolded, parts of a singular sentences; subject, predicate, attribute, adjunct;
word formation: basic expressions, derivative expressions, basics of formative,
formative, types of formative, core, accentuation.
6. Show the ability to write: notes, short stories, descriptions and character
analysis.
7. Take part in the lesson, class discussion, to compose different types of speeches
individually and in groups.
8. Prepare for lessons, read stories, poems (mythology, textbook To lubie), paint
illustrations, complete exercises relating to the composition of individual work
and class work.
9. Provide neat notes, correction of work (as further exercises and consolidation of
an orthographic material).
Examples of Mother-tongue Courses
28 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Grade 7—Educational Requirements
The students will be expected to:
1. Read aloud with appropriate expression; read in silence with good
understanding of the text; demonstrate the ability to depict fragments
concerning the theme; describe the presented world in context of time, place, its
characters and their functions, its narrator and his judgment of that world;
analyse and describe characters; compose a plan. Recite two chosen poems,
participate in a class performance.
2. Read four to six works:
A Mickiewicz—Dziady (part 2)
M Musierowicz—Jezycjada (part 1)
H Sienkiewicz—Latarnik
H Sienkiewicz—Trylogia (one of the 3 parts)
JRR Tolkien—The Hobbit
M Dabrowska—Marcin Lozera
I Jurgielewiczowa—Ten obcy
D Terakowska—Wladca Lewanu
Z Nienacki—Pan Samochodzik I templariusze
M Krüger—Godzina pasowej rozy
E Niziurski—Niewiarygodne przygody Marka Piegusa
J Broszkiewicz—Wielka,Wieksza I najwieksza
W Makowiecki—Diossos
H Sienkiewicz—W pustyni I w puszczy
M Jedrchowska, ZA Klakowna—To lubie
3. Write four classworks, two grammar tests, and complete any corrections
required.
4. Demonstrate knowledge of syntax: types of complex sentences, coordinate and
subordinate.
5. Show the ability to write a character analysis, speech, attempt to write a
discussion, introduce quotations.
6. Take part in lessons, class discussions, individually and in groups, edit different
types of speeches.
7. Prepare for class, read short stories, poems (text book To lubie), complete
exercises providing basis to composition of individual work and class work.
8. Provide neat notes, correct their own work (as a further exercise and to
consolidate orthographic material).
9. Demonstrate knowledge of literary terms: metaphor, animation, personification,
confrontation, epithet; literary genre: story, novelette, novel and its variations;
types of poems and different forms of speeches and positioning of rhyme.
10. Analyse modern poetry, Polish and foreign.
Examples of Mother-tongue Courses
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 29
Grade 8—Educational Requirements
The students will be expected to:
1. Read:
A de Saint-Exupéry—The Little Prince
A Fredro—Zemsta
E Hemingway—The Old Man and the Sea
B Prus—Katarynka or Kamizelka
Along with texts from the textbook To lubie and a book from the list in the
textbook, free choice.
E Niziurski—Niewiarygodne przygody Marka Piegusa
M Wojtyszko—Bambuko czyli skandal w krainie gier
I Jurgielewiczowa—Inna
E Nowacka—Malgosia contra Malgosia
W Makowiecki—Diossos
H Sienkiewicz—W pustyni I w puszczy
H Sienkiewicz—Quo vadis
K Makuszynski—Szalenstwa panny Ewy
M Jedrychowska, ZA Klakowna—To lubie
2. Recite and prepare the staging for:
J Kochanowski—Treny
C K Norwid—Moja piosnka II
Taking part in the staging
3. Prepare homework, and every two weeks one longer written work: precise
character analysis, involving quotations to justify the appreciation and
statements; discussion conducted in an orderly way, with clearly determined
viewpoints; description of the situation or of the voice in the discussion, report
or summary of situations. Preparation for classwork.
4. Write a classwork, in connection to given reading and materials from textbook;
write tests—two on material just mentioned, one on grammar, one verification
test based on various material.
5. Analyse orally (three to five minutes) one threnody and a freely chosen poem—
prepared at home, delivered in class, but not read out.
6. Prepare and present in class: one project, in connection to current themes, in an
optional form: collage, newspaper or other creative form, along with an oral
explanation (either a speech or in another form).
7. Work constantly and be active in class, use time effectively, highlight any
doubts or problems.
Examples of Mother-tongue Courses
30 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Grade 9—Educational Requirements
The students will be expected to:
1. Demonstrate knowledge of following works of old Polish and foreign literature:
The Song about Roland
Tristan and Izolde
François Villon—The Great Testament
I Jurgieloewiczowa—Ten obcy
D Terakowska—Wladca Lewanu
D Terakowska—Corka czarownic
Z Nienacki—Pan Samochodzik I templariusze
E Niziurski—Niewiarygodne przygody Marka Piegusa
M Wojtyszko—Bambuko czyli skandal w krainie gier
I Jurgielewiczowa—Inna
E Nowacka—Malgosia contra Malgosia
W Makowiecki—Diossos
H Sienkiewicz—W pustyni I w puszczy
Quo vadis
M Jedrychowska, ZA Klakowna—To lubie
K Makuszynski—Panna z mokra glowa
Legenda o Sw. Aleksym
Bogurodzica
Kroniki— Gall Anonim, short poems from Middle Ages
J Kochanowski—Odprawa poslow greckich, Piesni, Fraszki, Treny
Chosen works from: M Rej, M Sep Szarzynski, Z Naborowski, A Morsztyn,
W Potocki, J Ch Paske, F Zablocki—Fircyk w zalotach
Shakespeare—Hamlet
Molier—Swietoszek
I Krasicki—Monachomachia
Niemcewicz—Powrot posla
2. Recite four poems chosen individually (threnody, trifle, song, fairy tale).
3. Write a test and a classwork on middle ages and renaissance.
4. Write a test and a classwork on renaissance, baroque and enlightenment.
5. Deliver at least one report on a subject chosen independently.
6. Perform two longer speeches in class showing the ability to interpret and
analyse the artistry of a chosen piece of work (threnody or song).
7. Show commitment in lessons and the ability to work with texts and use
quotations.
8. Produce at least one written piece of work per month, on one of the given
subjects, concentrating on form and content; including quotations from literary
works, monographs, books about the theory of literature and scientific
textbooks.
Examples of Mother-tongue Courses
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 31
Grade 10—Educational Requirements
The students will be expected to:
1. Demonstrate the knowledge of Romantic literature:
Byron—Giaur
Mickiewicz—Konrad Wallenrod, Dziady, Pan Tadeusz, various poems
Fragments: slowacki: Kordian, Puszkin: Eugeniusz Oniegin, various poems
Norwid—poems, 2 short stories
Fredro—Sluby Panienskie
Prus—Lalka
Orzeszkowa, Prus, Sienkiewicz, Konopnicka—2 novelettes each
R Bach—Mewa
B Lesmian—Przygody Sindbada Zeglarza
J Zulawski—Na Srebrnym globie
T Konwicki—Zwierzoczlekoupior
H Sienkiewicz—Trylogia
A Mickiewicz—Pan Tadeusz
S Lem—Bajki robotow
E Orzeszkowa—Nowele
B Prus—Nowele
M Konopnicka—Nowele
H Sienkiewicz—Nowele
K Makuszynski—Szatan a 7 klasy
A Kaminski—Kamienie na szaniec
M Wankowicz—Ziele na kraterze
I Singer—Opowiadania
G Zapolska—Zabusia
Moralnose pani Dulskiej
St Zeromski—Ludzie bezdomni
Przedwiosnie
2. Recite one lyric from each of the above poets.
3. Write a test and a classwork on romanticism.
4. Write a test and a classwork on positivism.
5. Deliver at least one report on a theme chosen individually.
6. Perform two longer speeches in class showing the ability to interpret and
analyse the artistry of a chosen piece of work.
7. Show commitment in class and the ability to work with texts and to use
quotations.
8. Produce at least one written piece of work per month, on one of the given
subjects, concentrating on form and content; including quotations from literary
works, monographs, books about the theory of literature and scientific
textbooks.
Examples of Mother-tongue Courses
32 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Curriculum of Study for Grades 6–10
This contains all types of language activities: writing, speaking, reading on the basis
of the analysis of studied literary works, completed with the elements of the theory of
literature (literary genres), history of literature (epochs, current), history of Poland.
The battle for the statehood, 140 years of dependency, nearly 200 years of censorship
had a great influence upon Polish literature of the XIX and XX century. As a result,
Polish literature of this period is rich in symbols, specific marks and language that
would be unclear for the student without historical and literary background.
In every grade the student is required to read four to six literary works. Based upon
material studied during lessons, individual student reading choices, theatre plays and
films, the students are expected to produce eight written works per year.
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 33
Example of Coursework (1)
This is an example of a unit of work from an MYP school in the Asia-Pacific region.
This unit of work is used in the second-language class. It supports the humanities course, while
explicitly teaching language. Although they complete these supporting exercises in the secondlanguage
class, students still complete the task in humanities with no modification of task or
assessment.
Humanities
Unit: Comparing low/high GNP countries
Year: 8 (MYP3)
ESL Ability: Pre-intermediate/intermediate
Time frame: 2 weeks
Aims: To give students confidence to present on a topic alone
To encourage greater class participation
To develop research skills
To develop language skills to deal with class content
Background: The mainstream class will focus on primary, secondary, and tertiary
industries and look at the issues connected with the level of GNP in the country.
Fortunately much of the information is in table form—students are required to analyse
issues such as life expectancy, health, education, and natural resources. The students
need to become confident with the specialist terminology to be able to participate
more readily in class. As it is a relatively simple factual topic, students have less
reason to fear mistakes; therefore it is a good opportunity to try to maximize students’
class involvement.
Mainstream class task: To research resources, geography, population, economy,
politics, and history of one low and one high GNP country, and to then give a class
presentation, explaining how the two are different.
Resources: Statistical charts (Collins Longman Student Atlas 1998)
www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html
Grammar focus points
The topic lends itself to the following grammar focus:
• use of although, despite, in spite, because of, however
Useful additional unit: Comparisons (unit 10: Comparing places, Writing through
pictures, Longman)
Activity 1: Vocabulary development—four-way crossword
Students in groups of four each have a copy of a crossword with some words filled in
and some words missing. Each student in the group must call for a missing word, for
example: “What’s four across?” The student with that information must reply without
using the actual word. (Students can prepare for this by looking at the words prior to
the game. Another option is to have four groups in the class that work as a team.)
Example of Coursework (1)
34 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Activity 2: Extracting information from difficult texts (worksheet 1)
Students research mostly using the CIA web site (listed under “resources”). They may
need quick tips to help them find key ideas, but also structures to present the ideas in a
precise and objective fashion. Worksheet 1 has a section on Angola from the web site.
Students complete the structures. They then complete the same structures with
information from their own country under study.
Activity 3: Listening (transcript 1)
An imaginary country “Chocoland” was created. The move away from the serious
nature of their own research into “nonsense” helps students laugh and enjoy the topic,
and unintentionally prepare skills for their true task. Students are required to listen for
resources, geography, population, economy, politics and history points, and list them
in a table.
Activity 4: Matching sentences (worksheet 2—follow-up to listening)
Students match the two halves of the sentences (fairly challenging).
Activity 5: Practice writing statements on industry, conclusion
Students may have difficulty writing on the three industrial sectors and drawing
conclusions, so this is a group practice, using Chocoland as a model. This exercise is
conducted as a group in class; all students contribute while one person writes the script
on the board. Students need to use information from the previous listening and
matching exercises to write statements on the industry of Chocoland, draw
conclusions, and then adapt this model to their own project.
Activity 6: Presentation
Students have a practice-run of their speech for humanities in the ESL class. Listening
students have a table to fill in and then give feedback to their classmates. The table
also serves as a checklist to make sure they have all the details required. Classmates
are asked to give both positive comments and suggestions for improvement, and
students have an individual talk with the ESL teacher afterwards to discuss their
response to the activity.
Example of Coursework (1)
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 35
Worksheet 1
Angolan Economy—Overview:
Angola is an economy in disarray because of a quarter century of nearly continuous
warfare. Despite its abundant natural resources, output per capita is among the world’s
lowest. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the
population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy,
contributing about 45% to GDP and 90% of exports. Despite the signing of a peace
accord in November 1994, violence continues, millions of landmines remain, and
many farmers are reluctant to return to their fields. As a result, much of the country’s
food must still be imported. To take advantage of its rich resources—gold, diamonds,
extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries and large oil deposits—Angola will need to
implement the peace agreement and reform government policies. Despite the increase
in the pace of civil warfare in late 1998, the economy grew by an estimated 4% in
1999. The government introduced new currency denominations in 1999, including a
1 and 5 kwanza note. Expanded oil production brightens prospects for 2000, but
internal strife discourages investment outside of the petroleum sector.
1. __ has a (strong / weak) economy because of .
2. Despite its _
, output per capita is among the world’s (highest / lowest).
3. _ provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population.
4. __ (and __ ) are vital to the economy, contributing about
45% to GDP and 90% of exports. (In spite of / despite / although) ,
happens.
5. As a result, .
6. To take advantage of its, __ will need to _.
7. Despite the (increase in / decrease in) , the economy (grew /
declined) by an estimated 4% in 1999.
8. The government introduced _, including a .
9. _
(is good) , but __ (is bad) __.
Example of Coursework (1)
36 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Listening Transcript 1
Chocoland is a medium-sized country lying on the east coast of Yum Yum. From
north to south it is 5432 km long and from east to west it is 2345 km wide. The shape
of the country is an exact rectangle, like a chocolate bar. The capital of Chocoland,
Chococity, is located in the north-eastern-most corner of the country.
Chococity is an important trade centre for the country, as it is here that people from
the surrounding countries come to bargain for the chocolate. Chococity has an
important airport, from where it exports chocolate to the rest of the world.
Unfortunately, Chocoland has no coastal port, as in 1953, the anti-chocolate
campaigners planted landmines in a 5 km wide strip up the entire coast, to stop the
sale of chocolate. Chocoland was not to be defeated by this, and instead built two
large airports, one in the capital and one in Stickycity. An excellent highway also links
the two cities. Farmers send their produce to Stickycity by a complex railway system,
making transportation of goods very easy. The actual manufacturing of chocolate
occurs in Stickycity, which is about 2500km south of the capital and located in the
centre of the chocolate growing region.
In the north, Chocoland shares a border with Sugarland, to the west with Milkland,
and to the south with Cakeland. A high mountain range divides Cakeland from
Chocoland, and this is fortunate as for many years the two countries have been at war.
Rebels from Cakeland frequently run raids into Chocoland to steal the valuable
produce, which they themselves cannot make. 200 years ago this was a serious
problem and the economy of the country became very weak, however recently better
trade relations between the two countries have helped to improve the situation.
Chocoland is ideal for growing its main crop, chocolate. It has warm, tropical
summers and short mild winters. The cocoa beans are grown on the hills that stretch
from the mountains in the south to the Cocoa River, which flows from the northwestern
corner of the country to Stickycity. The river is an important trade route,
bringing sugar and milk from the neighbouring countries.
Generally the inhabitants of Chocoland have a very high standard of living, and the
country’s GNP is one of the highest in Yum Yum.
Example of Coursework (1)
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 37
Worksheet 2
1. Chocoland is a a. infrastructure, with international and
domestic airports and a well-developed
network of expressways.
2. Over the past 10 years, it has been able to
develop a strong GNP,
b. largely due to its extensive trade in chocolate
products.
3. It lies on c. is the manufacturing centre of the country.
4. Chocoland has a highly developed d. as Chocoland has no coastal port, due to a
5 km wide strip of landmines along the coast.
5. This is essential for its exports, e. with tropical summers and mild cool winters.
6. The capital city is located f. in the north-eastern-most corner of the
country.
7. Here the majority of the population work in
tertiary industry,
g. the eastern coast of Yum Yum. (continent)
8. The other large city, called Stickycity, h. small
i. medium-sized
j. large
k. country.
l. island.
m. state.
9. Chocoland has an ideal climate for
chocolate production
n. such as trading chocolate to the surrounding
countries.
10. Much of its terrain o. bringing sugar and milk from the neighbouring
countries.
11. A large inland river provides an important
trade route
p. as an incentive to work harder.
12. Farmers growing the chocolate are paid
well by the government
q. consists of rolling hills, where most of the
chocolate is grown.
13. The government provides a similar
standard of living
r. for all those employed in the secondary
manufacturing industry.
14. Although war with surrounding nations has
frequently been a problem,
s. Chocoland is today a leading industrial
country.
38 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Example of Coursework (2)
This is an example of a task from an MYP school in the Africa-Europe-Middle East region.
In this task the second-language student does not receive assistance from a second-language
class, but rather the teacher provides different options within the task for these students. (An
example of differentiation.) Assessment is based on the same physical education criteria used
for first-language students.
Students completing the task had studied circuit training as a focus area, which included study
of the principles of general fitness and sport-specific training examples.
Year 10 Physical Education Assignment 2
You have studied how to design training programmes for specific sports. Now is your
chance to display your skill as a trainer.
Task:
1. Design a sport-specific training circuit that is relevant to a sport played in your
local community, or home country.
2. Teach your circuit to one of the PYP classes.
3. Provide a written reflection on your project, including:
• why you chose that sport
• how you investigated relevant skills
• how you designed an appropriate circuit (How do you know it is
appropriate?)
• a description and diagram of your circuit
• how you made your circuit enjoyable
• successes and setbacks of the project
• what you would change in the future and why.
Time frame:
Three weeks, including lesson and homework time. You will present to the PYP
classes in the second and third weeks according to the roster.
Guiding questions:
• What is a popular sport for children?
• What are the principles of sport-specific circuit training?
• How can the principles of sport-specific circuit training apply to your chosen
sport?
• How would you design and present a circuit that both relates to your chosen
sport and is appropriate for 8–12 year olds?
• How appropriate and enjoyable do you aim for your circuit to be?
Example of Coursework (2)
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 39
Remember—you will be assessed by the MYP criteria for physical education. Therefore, you need to
consider the following points.
Criterion A: show a thorough knowledge and understanding of the principles of sport-specific circuit
training
Criterion B: plan and compose complex movement sequences that make up sport-specific circuit
training (see me if you are unsure about what “complex” means)
Criterion C: show a high level of competence in applying and displaying a range of knowledge,
skills, strategies and concepts
Criterion D: consistently work well with others toward achievement of this task
Criterion E: demonstrate a very high level of personal engagement, and regularly show initiative,
enthusiasm and commitment. Show reflection on all the work, and set detailed goals for future
improvement.
ESL Note:
Students who are taking English as language B or as their second language A are reminded:
• You may request to present your circuit early in the second week—this gives you more time
to write your reflection
• See me by the end of the first week if you think you will need extra time overall to complete
your project
• There are Spanish and Portuguese translations of the physical education textbook in the
library—use them with your English version
• If you feel more comfortable teaching PYP students in your first language, let me know
NOW and we can organize for you to present at “………” Elementary School (just down the
road), or to the year 4 Spanish medium class
• Remember to use the handout on “writing reflections” given to the whole class, this will
make it very easy to structure your work (see me if you need another copy)
• Remember that although your reflection is written in English, and that I will correct any
language errors, this will not affect your level of achievement in any of the criteria (I am
testing your understanding and application, not your language)
• If you are not confident in writing your reflection you may choose to be assessed on a
combination of (a) your reflection and (b) a discussion with me on your reflection.
40 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Example of Coursework (3)
The following is an example of a task for first-year MYP students where the class may consist
of more than one second-language student. At this level the student may have a very poor
grasp of the second language. Students at this level would also be receiving assistance from a
second-language programme.
The task has been designed to be appropriate for both first- and second-language learners,
though second-language students will require much monitoring and assistance from both
subject and second-language teachers. Assessment is based on modified criteria (arts, not
included) that have been modified in accordance with the age, rather than the language ability,
of all the students in the class.
Natural and Man-made Environments
Your task for five weeks is to complete a creative cycle based on natural and manmade
environments.
Remember—the creative cycle is:
Investigating 􀂀 Planning 􀂀 Creating 􀂀 Evaluating
1. Investigating (½ week)
• Look at man-made environments (buildings, parks, rooftops)
• Look at natural environments (trees, fields, sky)
• What is the same?
• What is different?
• Make notes in your developmental workbook
2. Planning (1 week)
You are going to create one design, in three different ways—pencil on paper, acrylic
paint on paper, collage.
Your design will show both man-made and natural objects existing together, for
example, plants and buildings, fields and cars.
• What will you design?
• What will be easy or difficult to design?
• Will you do a practice design?
• Will you be able to change your mind?
Medium—pencil on paper
• What size will your drawing be? Why?
• What type of pencil(s) will you use? Why?
• Will you use colour? Will you use one colour or many colours? Why?
Example of Coursework (3)
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 41
Medium—acrylic paint on paper
• What size will your painting be? Why?
• What colour will you use? Will you use many colours? Why?
• How will you apply the paint? With a brush? A matchstick? With your hands? Why?
Medium—collage
• What size will your collage be? Why?
• What materials will you use? Paper? Cotton? The real thing (eg grass, leaves)?
Why?
Make notes on all of these questions in your developmental workbook.
3. Creating (2½ weeks)
Using all of your planning, create your design.
4. Evaluating (1 week)
• Are you happy with your work? (Is it good? bad? average?) Why? Why not?
• What was easy? What was difficult?
• Did everything go to plan?
• What was your favourite medium? Why?
• What would you do differently next time? Why?
• Who in the class did a good project? Why do you think so?
Notes for arts and second-language teachers:
Students will need help in understanding the main words and concepts involved. (The assignment
sheet may need translation.)
Students may write in their developmental workbooks in their mother tongue, with a brief
summary of their comments in English. They may need help with this in their second-language
lessons as well as in arts class time.
The final product and the developmental workbook are used for assessment.
42 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Examples of Modified Criteria
The following are examples of assessment criteria modified for second-language students. Often
schools use modified means of assessment such as this instead of modifying the task itself. In this
instance the language-based criteria have been modified more than the concept-based criteria.
Students may be assessed against modified criteria in years 1–4 of the MYP. When assessing students
for final grades, the assessment criteria published in the subject guides must be used.
Language A Modified Criteria
Criterion A: Content
Level of
Achievement Descriptor
0 You do not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors.
1–2
You have shown that you understand very little of the work studied. You
have not developed your work. You have shown no imagination when
asked. When writing or talking about books or poems, you have shown
that you understand a little of what the author wanted to say.
3–4 You have shown that you understand some of the work studied. You
have tried to develop your work, though unsuccessfully. You have shown
little imagination when asked. When writing or talking about books or
poems, you have shown that you understand a little of what the author
wanted to say and different ways in which they said it.
5–6
You have shown that you understand most of the work studied. You
have developed your work, and attempted to expand with details. You
have shown some imagination when asked. When writing or talking
about books or poems, you have shown that you understand some of
what the author wanted to say and different ways in which they said it.
7–8
You have shown a good understanding of the work studied. You have
developed your work, given details, and attempted to give reasons when
necessary. You have shown imagination when asked. When writing or
talking about books or poems, you have shown that you understand
most of what the author wanted to say and different ways in which they
said it.
9–10
You have shown a very good understanding of the work studied. You have
developed your work, shown detail, and given reasons when necessary.
You have shown great imagination when asked. When writing or talking
about books or poems you show that you understand what the author
wanted to say, and the different ways in which they said it.
Examples of Modified Criteria
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 43
Criterion B: Organization
Level of
Achievement Descriptor
0 You do not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors.
1–2 Your work is disorganized, and your message is unclear. You are aware
of the need for paragraphs, but have not used them very well, or at all.
You have shown no awareness of the need for quotations and footnotes.
3–4 You have shown that you can organize some of your work, but some is
still out of order and unclear. You have used some paragraphing, though
it does not develop or support your work very well. You have shown
little awareness of the need for quotations and footnotes.
5–6 You have shown that you can organize your work, and you are mostly
clear in what you want to say. You have used paragraphs to develop
some of your ideas. You are not always aware of the need for quotations
and footnotes.
7–8 You have shown that you can organize your work well, you are mostly
clear in what you want to say, and your arguments are believable. You
have used paragraphs to develop and support some of your ideas. You
have shown that you are aware of the need for quotations and footnotes,
though are sometimes unsure of how to use them.
9–10
You have shown that you can organize your work very well, you are
clear in what you want to say, and your arguments are convincing. You
have used paragraphs to develop and support your ideas. You have
shown that you know how to use quotations and footnotes when
necessary.
Examples of Modified Criteria
44 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Criterion C: Style and Language Usage
Level of
Achievement Descriptor
0 You do not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors.
1–2
You have attempted to use correct vocabulary for this topic, but have
been mostly unsuccessful. Because you make many errors in spelling,
pronunciation, punctuation and syntax, your message is often not
understood. You have not shown awareness of your audience in what
you say or write.
3–4
Your use of vocabulary is not varied, and sometimes incorrect for this
topic. Because you make errors in spelling, pronunciation, punctuation,
and syntax, your message is sometimes not understood. You have shown
awareness of your audience, though what you say or write is often
inappropriate in terms of register.
5–6
Your use of vocabulary is mostly correct and occasionally varied with
regard to this topic. You make errors in spelling, pronunciation,
punctuation, and syntax that interfere with your message, though it can
still be understood. What you say or write is inappropriate at times for
your audience in terms of register.
7–8
You have used correct, and sometimes varied, vocabulary for the topic.
You make some errors in spelling, pronunciation, punctuation and
syntax, but these only sometimes interfere with your message. What you
say or write is appropriate most of the time for your audience in terms
of register.
9–10
You have used correct and varied vocabulary for the topic. You make
some errors in spelling, pronunciation, punctuation and syntax, but these
do not interfere with your message. What you say or write is
appropriate for your audience in terms of register.
Examples of Modified Criteria
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 45
Mathematics Modified Criteria
Criterion A: Knowledge and Understanding
Level of
Achievement Descriptor
0 You do not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors.
1–2 You show very little understanding of the topic covered. You try to use
forms of representation, but with little success.
3–4 You show that you understand some of the topic covered. You can use
some forms of representation.
5–6 You show that you understand most of the topic covered. You have
enough understanding to draw some conclusions. You can use different
forms of representation.
7–8 You show a very good knowledge of the topic covered. Through your
understanding, you can draw conclusions. You use different forms of
representation well, most of the time.
9–10
You display a complete knowledge of the topic covered. Through your
understanding, you can draw conclusions, even sometimes in situations
you have not been in. You use different forms of representation well.
Note: “forms of representation” means numbers, letters, shapes, graphs, etc.
Examples of Modified Criteria
46 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Criterion B: Application and Reasoning
Level of
Achievement Descriptor
0 You do not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors.
1–2 When investigating problems, you can recognize simple patterns, but
have difficulty thinking of rules to describe them. You know of some
basic problem-solving techniques that you can use some of the time.
3–4 When investigating problems you can recognize patterns and can
sometimes think of rules that describe them. You usually know which
problem-solving technique to use.
5–6 When investigating problems you recognize patterns and can describe
them as rules. You can draw conclusions from what you see. You usually
know which problem-solving technique to use, and can use some
technology in solving problems.
7–8
When investigating more difficult problems, you recognize patterns and
can describe them as rules. You can draw conclusions from what you
see. You know which problem-solving technique to apply to certain
problems, including sometimes using technology.
9–10
When investigating challenging problems, you recognize patterns and can
describe them as rules. You can draw conclusions and explain why. You
can use some advanced problem-solving techniques and know which
technique to apply to certain problems, including sometimes using
technology.
Examples of Modified Criteria
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 47
Criterion C: Communication
Level of
Achievement Descriptor
0 You do not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors.
1–2
You know and use basic mathematical symbols and language. You try to
speak about and explain solutions, but you are sometimes unclear. You
present some of your mathematical information clearly.
3–4
You know and use a range of mathematical symbols and language. You
can speak about and explain solutions. You present your mathematical
information clearly and logically.
5–6
You know and use a wide range of mathematical symbols and language.
You can speak about and explain solutions clearly so that others
completely understand. You use the correct mathematical tools to
present your information clearly and logically.
Criterion D: Reflection and Evaluation
Level of
Achievement Descriptor
0 You do not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors.
1–2 You try to explain why you used certain methods and processes, but are
sometimes unsuccessful. You rarely show an understanding of how
reliable your findings are.
3–4 You can mostly explain why you used certain methods and processes.
You show some understanding of how reliable your findings are.
5–6 You can explain why you used certain methods and processes. If needed,
you can suggest other ways you could have problem-solved. You show
an understanding of how important and how reliable your findings are.
7–8
You can explain clearly why you used certain methods and processes. If
needed, you can explain how you could have problem-solved in a
different way, including using technology. You show a complete
understanding of how important and how reliable your findings are.
48 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Example of Scaffolding (1)
“Scaffolding” gives students structures and frameworks around which to develop their learning,
and is part of the MYP approaches to learning. It is a way of explicitly teaching study skills.
The following is an example of scaffolding that can be used to assist second-language learners.
This could be helpful for intermediate to advanced learners of the second language that need
strategies for extended projects.
Helpful Hints for Carrying out a Project
1. Choosing a topic: choose something you are interested in and already know something about
(maybe in your own language). Don’t choose anything too complicated.
2. Decide what is your central idea or question.
3. How can you make your central idea or question more interesting? What areas connected to
your topic could you include in your report?
4. Find out from your teacher and fellow students where you should look for your information.
5. What sort of project have you been asked to prepare:
• a visual display, perhaps a poster
• a written report
• a spoken (oral) presentation?
6. Start collecting pictures, photos, newspaper and magazine cuttings that connect to your topic, if
this would be helpful.
7. Talk to your friends and the adults in your life. Ask their opinions and get their ideas about your
topic.
8. Is the Internet likely to be useful? Look up lists of web sites.
9. Search out useful books. Do not only use encyclopaedias.
10. Look at other sources of information such as video and CD-Roms.
11. Decide how you are going to divide up the content of your topic.
12. For all types of project use note-cards to help you keep your information in good order.
• Write a chapter name or other heading on each note-card.
• Write down the important things you need to find out under the headings.
• Write down some key questions on each card to guide your research. In other words, what do
you need to find out?
13. When you have found the information you need:
• Write it under the appropriate headings on your note-cards.
• Make sure you write down where you found the information—maybe a book, a web site or a
CD-Rom.
• You will need this information later when you write your bibliography or resources section.
14. All projects are more effective if you can present your information in a variety of different
ways.
Example of Scaffolding (1)
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 49
Preparing Different Types of Projects
A: A visual display or presentation
Remember:
• Choose an effective title—it should let the reader immediately understand what
your topic is about.
• Use your sub-headings to guide the reader through your project.
• Don’t rely on writing only to present your information.
• Add photos, drawings, pictures, graphs etc to provide information.
• Use models and activities to explain your topic.
Displaying your project:
• Can you read the title from a distance?
• Choose a font for your titles and headings that is easy to read.
• Is your display attractive and interesting?
• Will people want to come closer and look at your display more carefully?
• Can you include some interactive activity in your display? This is a very good way
of keeping the attention of your readers.
• Be prepared to talk about your display and explain your research.
• Practise this in front of your classmates or at home before you have to perform in
public.
B: Writing a report
Remember:
• Use a table of contents to plan your report.
• Follow this by a list of chapters.
• Use the chapter names as headings on your note-cards.
• Write down the information you want to include in each chapter under the headings
on the cards.
• Write down your information in note form.
• Take the notes from each note-card and turn them into a chapter for your report.
• Do this by using the notes to create sentences and paragraphs that set out the
information in a readable form.
• Be very careful not to copy whole sentences or paragraphs from books or to
download material directly from a web site.
This is a model outline for a topic about a famous person.
Title: The Importance of the Painter Pablo Picasso in the History of Art.
Contents page:
Chapters:
1. His childhood— when did he first become a painter?
2. His early paintings
3. Life in Paris
4. Influences on his art
5. His artist friends
6. The war years—people who helped him
7. The main phases of his work
8. His place in the history of art
9. Conclusion and author’s opinion
Bibliography
Other Resources
About the author (that’s you!)
Example of Scaffolding (1)
50 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
C: Preparing a spoken (oral) presentation
Remember:
• Break up your chosen topic into mini-topics.
• Use these as headings on your note-cards.
• Use these headings to help you focus your research on what you need to find out.
• Write short notes under the headings.
• Don’t write whole sentences. You want to avoid reading word for word from your
note-cards.
• But, make sure you can understand your own notes.
Giving the presentation:
• Put the cards in the correct order for your presentation and number them clearly.
• Practise using the notes on the cards to help you to present your information aloud.
• Try not to read word for word from the card.
• Can you make your presentation more interesting by including some visual
material that you can show to your audience?
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 51
Example of Scaffolding (2)
This is an example of a filled-in template, demonstrating scaffolding that could be used in a
language A or B class, depending on the situation. Teachers could easily adapt this type of
scaffolding to many subjects in all year levels.
This could be helpful for learners at all levels of competence.
Planning a story
1. The idea!
2. Basic outline
Introduction:
􀁹 2 girls
􀁹 names
􀁹 where they live
Incident:
(what happened?)
􀁹 Went for a walk
􀁹 Found a wallet
Incident:
(what did they do?)
􀁹 Decided to keep it
􀁹 Saw boy on way home
– sad story
Incident:
(what consequence?)
􀁹 Upset by story
􀁹 Gave wallet back
Moral:
􀁹 You should return
things you find
Moral Story
Example of Scaffolding (2)
52 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
3. Vocabulary/language needed
Paragraph 1
Paragraph 2
Paragraph 3
Paragraph 4
Paragraph 5
Nouns:
names
place names
Other:
one day
once upon a time
Verbs:
walk
go
look
see
find
pick up
Nouns:
wallet
footpath
Background:
footpath
blue sky
green trees, grass
Verbs:
keep
buy
return
cry
worry
fell
lost
hurt
Nouns:
shop
sweets
knee
Background:
ground
Verbs:
be upset
give back
be happy
Other:
should
because
if…then…
4. Rough draft, paragraph by paragraph
5. Editing and rewriting as needed or suggested by the teacher
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 53
Example of Teacher Information (1)
This is an example of information from an MYP school in the Asia-Pacific region.
This information was given to teachers as part of training to cater for second-language students
in their classrooms.
Language Implications for ESL Students
in Mainstream Classrooms
Science
The most common uses of English in science are:
􀁹 vocabulary
􀁹 comparison and contrast
􀁹 definitions
􀁹 generalizations
􀁹 description and sequencing.
Familiar words used in a different context may trick the students, for example:
􀁹 The culture is established in a petri-dish.
􀁹 Matter can be divided into distinct groups.
Words that refer to other parts of the sentence
􀁹 Some seeds have wings, which cause them to spin in the wind…
􀁹 Living things can move. Animals show this ability much more than plants…
􀁹 Many trees grow tall and these form a canopy of leaves…
Cause and effect
Science often uses connection words showing cause and effect. The first three words in this list would
be the simplest ones for ESL:
Because, so, therefore, as, thus, consequently, as a result of, since, accordingly
Comparison and contrast
Long, longer (than), (the) longest…
These constructions will require considerable mental processing by the students.
Example of Teacher Information (1)
54 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Expressing differences
The first two words in this list would be the simplest ones for ESL:
But, however, whereas, in contrast to, unlike, on the other hand, differs from, is different from/to,
instead of having
Expressing degree (requires considerable mental processing)
Very much, a good deal, somewhat, three times, more than two-and-a-half times, less than twice, half
as much again
Questioning
Describe, explain, discuss…
Be clear with your instructions and questions! What exactly do you want students to do?
Be aware that students may know the answer, but may not understand the question, or may not
have the language to answer it.
Example of Teacher Information (1)
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 55
Finding key words for a topic
Issues for Consideration
Application
What are the main teaching objectives for the
unit?
Isolate key vocabulary necessary for basic
knowledge of a topic.
• By formulating a brief summary of the
topic, and scanning text, key vocabulary
will emerge.
• Be careful of verbs. Often the most simplelooking
verb is being used in a new context
for the students. Likewise, some nouns may
have a different meaning in science.
What are the relevant language functions for the
unit?
predicting, hypothesizing, describing,
analysing, etc.
What spoken and written genres will be
generated by this unit?
Will students have to write a report or short
response, make a list or chart, etc.
How will the unit be assessed? Will it be essay style, multiple-choice questions,
practical, spoken, etc?
What will the writing demands of the
assessment be?
How can you ensure that the student is given
full opportunity to show their knowledge?
Note: This is only the beginning of the list. It will continue to grow as you work through each unit of
work. ESL teachers will also help you refine the list.
Example of Teacher Information (1)
56 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Example of key words found for a topic:
Science topic: crude oil
Nouns Verbs Adjectives
crude oil
organism
alkanes
decay
organic compounds
chain
molecule
side position
(homologous) series
form by
contain
turn into
decay
based on
attached to side positions
join to each other
allows it to make
follows a pattern
have a similarity
unusual
particular
general
Language Functions
Descriptions
Labelling diagrams
Making tables
Science report writing
Class participation and answering questions
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 57
Example of Teacher Information (2)
This is an example of information from an MYP school in the Asia-Pacific region.
This information was given to teachers as part of training to cater for second-language students in
their classrooms.
Improving the Learning Climate for Linguistically
and Culturally Diverse Students
1. Give the gift of time whenever possible.
2. Consider administering tests in alternative formats (orally, computer, etc).
3. When appropriate, present material using graphic and/or sensory media.
4. Combine both auditory and visual stimuli.
5. Allow students to use a word processor for writing if needed.
6. Make it easy for students to ask for repetition.
7. Don’t give too many instructions at one time. Break tasks down into their component parts.
8. Allow time in advance for students to think about items to be covered in class.
9. Provide plenty of pre-discussion, pre-reading, pre-writing activities.
10. Reduce the level of distraction in the room.
11. Explicitly state the topic at hand and proceed in a structured, concrete manner; progress from
the obvious to the concrete to the abstract.
12. Frame material by relating it to past classroom or personal experience. Highlight new material.
13. Whenever possible, cluster material so that it is organized by category.
14. Conduct frequent notebook checks of students’ work.
15. Look for students’ strengths and reinforce them.
16. Take an inventory of how the students think they learn best.
58 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Example of Parent Information
The following is an example of information to be included in a brochure to be given to parents
whose children are in second-language and/or mother-tongue programmes.
The text could be translated into the mother-tongue languages represented in the school.
Helping your child to be a successful language learner
at Treetops International School
Suggestions for parents
Introduction
Your child is entering a very exciting and challenging phase in their language
learning. The aim at Treetops International School is for students to become excellent
users of the language of instruction here at school (English) and for them to maintain
and develop their mother tongue. (The term mother tongue is used to describe the
language or languages that students use in the home.) In other words, to be bilingual
with the ability to speak, listen, read and write in both their important languages, for
example English and their mother tongue.
Specialist teaching in English
Here at Treetops IS, your child will receive specialist help in learning English so that
they can participate as fully and as soon as possible in the academic programme of the
school. He or she will be placed in an ESL/EAL (English as a second or additional
language) class according to their present level of competence. You may want to
speak to members of the ESL/EAL department at the Back to School night
on……………to learn more about this programme.
What can you do?
Of course you can make the process of learning English a positive experience by
supporting your child in learning this language. Your own attitude will be a very important
element in this process. These are some of the ways that you can help your child.
• Allow attendance at after-school clubs and classes
• Encourage out-of-school activities in …………
• Join organizations outside school such as ………
• Participate in sport outside school
Example of Parent Information
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 59
Maintaining and developing the mother tongue
There are many reasons why parents should support their children in maintaining and
developing their mother tongue. You may expect your child to:
• re-join your home school system
• return to your home country for higher education
• certainly be able to speak to their grandparents and other family members in
her or his mother tongue.
It is important that your child continues their development of this language to a high level
in all the skills of language: speaking, listening and understanding, reading and writing.
In addition to this, maintaining and developing all aspects of the mother tongue also
has the following benefits.
• It enables students to remain in touch with the language and literature of
their home culture.
• It ensures continuous cognitive development while students learn the new
language. (This is important because the programme in our school requires
students to think at a high cognitive level.)
• It makes a positive contribution to the learning of the second language.
Linguistic and cognitive development in the home language and an
understanding of how languages work transfers well to the learning of
second language and promotes its development.
• It makes it possible for students to re-adjust to life in their home community
and education system should they return to their home country.
• It allows students to participate in the life of their mother tongue community
here in …… For instance in religious observance, celebrating cultural
festivals and taking part in social activities.
What can you do?
You can see from the information given above that it may not be helpful to your
child’s bilingual development to switch from using your mother tongue at home to
using English.
You can ensure the maintenance and development of your child’s home language by:
• using your mother tongue with your children to discuss all family events,
items in the news and to share ideas about books, TV and films etc
• giving your children rich and enjoyable language experiences in their mother
tongue (Social activities with their own age group ensure that your child will
want to continue using the mother tongue.)
• finding mother-tongue materials that cover the same material as they are
learning in English in school (This is a very effective method of helping your
child to understand the vocabulary and concepts related to the subjects they
are studying in school. It also helps your child to learn the same content in
their mother tongue.)
Example of Parent Information
60 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
• arranging formal reading and writing lessons in your mother tongue (A list of
language-learning possibilities in ………… is included at the end of this
document. You should also ask other parents who speak your language for their
advice.) Formal lessons are necessary in order for your child to learn to read and
write at the same level as students of the same age in your home country.
• encouraging your child to keep in touch with grandparents and other family
members or by carrying out an e-mail correspondence with friends who
speak the same language.
Please remember that we are happy to answer any questions about your child’s
language learning. Please feel free to ask to talk to your child’s classroom teacher or
ESL/EAL teacher in order to discuss any issues of concern.
The following classes and possibilities exist in ……………… for students to continue
their studies in their mother tongue:




(For example, in-school mother-tongue classes, after school mother-tongue classes,
embassy classes, classes attached to a mosque or temple, Saturday schools, Saturday
morning classes held by the local language schools, classes at cultural centres.)
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 61
References
The following is a list of references that some MYP teachers have found useful in setting up and
maintaining second-language and mother-tongue programmes. The IBO is not responsible for the
content of these references.
Baker, C. 1993. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual
Matters.
Baker, C and Prys Jones, S. 1998. Encyclopaedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. Clevedon:
Multilingual Matters.
Becker, H. 2001. Teaching ESL K-12: Views from the Classroom. Heinle and Heinle.
Bialystok, E. 1997. “The Structure of Age: In Search of Barriers to Second Language Acquisition”.
Second Language Research, v13 n2 p116-37 April 1997.
Bialystok, E. 1997. “Effects of Bilingualism and Biliteracy on Children's Emerging Concepts of
Print”. Developmental Psychology, v33 n3 p429-440 May 1997.
Carder, MW. 1994. “The language conundrum in international education”. Skepsis: International
Schools Association Magazine, Issue 2, November 1994.
Carder, MW. 2000. “A Comprehensive ESL and Mother Tongue Model for International Schools
(Secondary) (and a Caveat on Financing)”. In ECIS ESL Committee Newsletter, August 2000,
Carder, MW. 2000. “MYP Central Areas and Language of Instruction”. paper for Vienna International
School, November 2000.
Carder, MW. 2002. “Mother Tongue Programmes in International Schools”. presentation at ECIS ESL
and Mother Tongue Conference Language Summit, Leysin, Switzerland, March 2002.
Carder, MW. 2002. “Second Language Learners in the MYP”. In International School. Autumn 2002.
Clark, R, Fairclough, N, Ivanic, R, Martin-Jones, M. 1990. “Critical language awareness: Part 1: A
critical review of three content approaches to language awareness, and, Part 2: Towards critical
alternatives”. Language and Education, 4 (4), 249-260, and, 5 (1), 41-54.
Cloud, N, Genesee, F, and Hamayan, E. 2000. Dual Language Instruction: A Handbook for Enriched
Education. Boston, Heinle and Heinle.
Corson, D. 1990. Language Policy Across the Curriculum. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters.
Crystal, D. 1987. The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Language. Cambridge, Cambridge University
Press.
Crystal, D. 1997. English as a global language, Cambridge United Press.
Cummins, J and Sayers, D. 1995. Brave new schools: Challenging cultural illiteracy through global
learning networks. New York, St. Martins Press.
Cummins, J. 1996. Negotiating Identities: Education for Empowerment in a Diverse Society. Ontario,
Canada.
References
62 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Cummins, J. Language, Power and Pedagogy: Bilingual Children in the Crossfire. Clevedon,
Multilingual Matters.
Datta, M. 2000. Bilinguality and Literacy, Principles and Practice. London and New York,
Continuum.
de Mejía, A. 2002. Power, Prestige and Bilingualism. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters.
Faltis, CJ and Wolfe, PM. (eds.) 1999. So Much To Say: Adolescents, Bilingualism and ESL in the
Secondary School. London and New York, Columbia University.
Field, RD. 2002. “Designing context-responsive language education programs”. Presentation at ECIS
ESL and Mother Tongue Conference Language Summit, Leysin, Switzerland, March 2002.
Gillespie Griffin, G. 1993. “The relationship between starting age and second language learning”.
Educational Resources Information Center (www.askeric.org).
Gindis, B. 1999. “The Bilingual Verbal Ability Tests (BVAT): A Breakthrough in Bilingual
Assessment - or Is It?” NASP Communiqué, March, Vol. 27, #6, pp.26-27.
Gindis, B. 2000. “Detecting and Remediating the Cumulative Cognitive Deficit in School Age
Internationally Adopted Post-institutionalized Children”. The POST (The Parent Network for the Post-
Institutionalized Child), Issue # 27, 2000-1, Meadow Land, PA, pp. 1-6.
Hamayan, E. 2000. “Learning disabilities or second language learning difficulties?” In IB World,
December 2000, Issue 25.
Hamayan, E. 2002. “Cultural Diversity in Your School: Enjoy It!” Presentation at ECIS ESL and
Mother Tongue Conference Language Summit, Leysin, Switzerland, March 2002.
Hamayan, E. 2002. “Intervention Strategies for Second Language Learners with Special Needs”.
Presentation at ECIS ESL and Mother Tongue Conference Language Summit, Leysin, Switzerland,
March 2002.
Hammond, J. (ed.) 2001. Scaffolding: Teaching and Learning in Language and Literacy Education.
Newtown, New South Wales, Primary Teaching Association.
Hartung-Cole, E. 2000. “He’s Really Smart, He Just Doesn’t Speak English!” Middle Ground,
October 2000.
Hawkins, E. 1987. Awareness of language: An introduction. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Hayden, M, Thompson, J, and Walker, G. (eds). 2002 International Education in Practice: dimensions
for national and international schools. Kogan Page.
IBO. 2002. Primary Years Programme, Learning additional languages in the primary years: A review
of the research.
IBO. 2002. Articulation of the Primary Years Programme, the Middle Years Programme and the
Diploma Programme Monograph.
ILEA Afro-Caribbean Language and Literacy Project in Further and Adult Education. 1990. Language
and power: Language materials for students in the multilingual and multiethnic classroom. London,
Harcourt Brace Jovanovitch.
Jonietz, PL. (1990) Developing Collaboratively an International School Special Needs Plan for
Multicultural, Multilingual, and Multinational Secondary Students. Paper presented at the Council for
Exceptional Children Symposium on Culturally Diverse Exceptional Children, Albuquerque, NM,
October 18-20, 1990.
References
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 63
Jonietz, PL. 1994. “Trans-Language Learners: A New Terminology for International Schools”.
International Schools Journal. No. 27, p. 41-45, Spring 1994.
Lambert, WE. 1977. “The Effect of Bilingualism on the Individual: Cognitive and Socio-Cultural
Consequences”. In: A. Hornby (Ed.) Bilingualism: Psychological, Social, and Educational
Implications. NY: Academic.
Lessow-Hurley, J. 2003. Meeting the Needs of Second Language Learners: an educator’s guide. USA,
ASCD.
Lock, G. 1996. Functional English Grammar: An Introduction for Second Language Learners.
Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
McCarthy, M and Carter, R. 1994. Language as Discourse: Perspectives for Language Teaching.
London, Longman.
Mittens, B. 1991. Language Awareness for Teachers. Milton Keynes, The Open University Press.
Murphy, E. (ed.) 1990. ESL: A Handbook for Teachers and Administrators in International Schools.
Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Peel, RM. 1997. Guide to the Diploma Programme. International Baccalaureate Organization.
Polias, J. 2002. ESL Scope and Scales. Adelaide, South Australia: Department of Education and
Children’s Services. (free to download at: http://www.sacsa.sa.edu.au/ under ‘Equity Cross-
Curriculum Perspectives’)
Rojas, VP. 2002. “Language Smarts: Success with English Language Learners”. Presentation at ECIS
Language Summit, Leysin, Switzerland, March 2002.
Sears, C. 1998. Second Language Students in Mainstream Classrooms. Clevedon, Multilingual
Matters.
Segan, F and Segan, P. 2001. “Creating Supportive School Environments for Bilingual/ESL Learners:
Dilemmas facing 21st century leaders”. Presentation to ASCD Annual Conference, Boston,
Massachusetts, 2001.
Skutnabb-Kangas, T. 2000. Linguistic Genocide in Education – or Worldwide Diversity and Human
Rights? New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Spolsky, B. (ed.) 1999. Concise Encyclopaedia of Educational Linguistics. Oxford, Elsevier Science Ltd.
The Hague Recommendations Regarding the Education Rights of National Minorities (1996).
Thomas, WP and Collier, VP. 1997. School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students. NCBE
Resource Collection Series, No. 9 (December).
Thomas, WP and Collier, VP. 1998. “Two Languages Are Better Than One”. Educational Leadership.
Vol. 55 no. 4 p. 23-26 Dec-Jan 1997-1998.
Thomas, WP and Collier, VP. 1999. “Making US Schools Effective for English Language Learners,
Parts 1, 2, and 3”. In Tesol Matters, vol. 9, nos. 4, 5, and 6, Aug/Sep 1999, Oct/Nov 1999, and Dec
1999/Jan 2000.
Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights (1996), section 2: Education.
Unsworth, L. (ed.) 1993. Literacy, Learning and Teaching: Language as Social Practice in the
Primary School. Melbourne, Macmillan.

Addresses
Addresses
66 MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004
Headquarters
• Organisation du Baccalauréat International
Route des Morillons 15
Grand-Saconnex, Genève
CH-1218
SWITZERLAND
Tel: +41 22 791 7740
Fax: +41 22 791 0277
E-mail: gro.obi|qhbi#gro.obi|qhbi
Curriculum and Assessment Centre
• International Baccalaureate Organization
Peterson House, Malthouse Avenue
Cardiff Gate
Cardiff, Wales
GB CF23 8GL
UNITED KINGDOM
Tel: + 44 29 2054 7777
Fax: + 44 29 2054 7778
E-mail: gro.obi|acbi#gro.obi|acbi
IBO Online
• Public web site: http://www.ibo.org
• Web site for IB coordinators (password protected): http://ibnet.ibo.org
• Online curriculum centre for IB teachers (password protected): http://online.ibo.org
Addresses
MYP Second-language Acquisition and Mother-tongue Development, January 2004 67
Regional Offices
Regional offices of the IBO around the world provide services to authorized schools, arrange teacher
training events and conferences, and assist schools in communications with the IBO headquarters in
Geneva and the Curriculum and Assessment Centre in Cardiff.
Africa/Europe/Middle East
• IBO Africa/Europe/Middle East
Route des Morillons 15
Grand-Saconnex, Genève
CH-1218
SWITZERLAND
Tel: +41 22 791 7740
Fax: +41 22 791 0277
E-mail: gro.obi|meabi#gro.obi|meabi
Asia-Pacific
• IBO Asia-Pacific
70 Shenton Way
#04-03 Marina House
Singapore
SG-079118
REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE
Tel: +65 6 776 0249
Fax: +65 6 776 4369
E-mail: gro.obi|pabi#gro.obi|pabi
Latin America
• IBO Latin America
Avenida del Libertador 2740
1er piso
Olivos, Buenos Aires
AR-B1636DSU
ARGENTINA
Tel: + +54 114 794 6330
Fax: +54 114 794 6330
E-mail: gro.obi|albi#gro.obi|albi
North America & Caribbean
• IBO North America
475 Riverside Drive, 16th Floor
New York, NY
US-10115
USA
Tel: +1 212 696 4464
Fax: +1 212 889 9242
E-mail: gro.obi|anbi#gro.obi|anbi

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